Learning outcomes of the course unit
The first learning goal (I Dublin descriptor – acquiring knowledge and understanding) aims at understanding thoroughly the role of the technological apparatus involved in the architectural ideation phase – focusing on defining voluntary or mandatory performance targets, as requested in each building types.
The second learning goal (II Dublin descriptor– applying knowledge and understanding) aims at focusing the attention on the building system, made of: technological, environmental, functional and spatial components, to supply the basics knowledge to get to an integrated design in which every single component is fully integrated to one another, with the same regards.
The final target is to provide the students a technological awareness, focused on environmental issues that inform the entire design phase, with regards to energy and materials, in the construction and in the management steps-
Furthermore, the class points at assuring to each student a basic level of independence in designing as well as in project mindfulness, in order to be able to make the most suitable technological choices and to assure an appropriate drawing capacity to communicate the architectural morphological and functional features (III Dublin descriptor – making informed judgments and choices).
By involving solo students and working group teams in workshops and conferences with some non-academic guests and practitioners, during the regular period lectures, it will be easy to foster learning capacities about the technology of architecture.
Course contents summary
The activity that will be carried out within the Laboratory is based on two teaching levels: the first one, a basic level, that introduces the essential elements in building technology will help to develop both the architectural and the environmental project; the second level, a more detailed one, will be focused on sustainability issues.
The first academic path aims at developing the basic knowledge of construction elements and building systems that regulate the technological apparatus of the building, the second paths aims at nurturing the development of a "technological awareness", in order to address the environmental problems that inform the design phase. Both of them will merge into the yearly study case.
Lectures will be about:
• Sustainability issues – including the environmental, social and economical aspects- as well as building’s implications, involved in the construction phase, the maintenance phase and the usage phase of the building.
• Environmental requirements, as demanded by the European and Italian regulations to be applied for new constructions and for refurbishment actions, whose aim is to reduce energetic consumption and GHGs emissions, to decrease the use of dangerous building and finishing materials, that can be unsafe to human health or to the natural environmental, to control the use of water resources, to improve indoor air quality, to increase the indoor quality by controlling temperature and humidity levels, to promote solar energy systems in order to heat or cool the rooms and to optimize the natural light exploitation;
• What is green architecture, bioclimatic architecture and bio-architecture – baubiologie;
• Fundamentals of bioclimatics;
• Site analysis. Orientation principles and surface to volume ratio. The sunlight exploitation. Solar shadings basics. Natural ventilation. The exploitation of soil thermal inertia.
• A review of some European experiences of sustainable architectures
• Home and energy saving strategies: low energy and passive houses. From the original models in Northern Europe and in Central regions to the Italian study cases.
• The architectural components in the building envelope
• Thermal behavior of the building envelope. Transmittance value and thermal inertia value in the masonry brick envelope.
• Structural components - “Why buildings stand up”
• Technological system essentials
• Lower horizontal enclosures
• Superior enclosures
• Vertical enclosures
• Internal and external partitions
• Vertical indoor connections
• Solar shading systems
The yearly study case will encompass the overall design of a residential building with a high level of environmental and energetic quality.
The main activities will be carried out during class-time along with several reviews by the professors.
The final project should include a proper volumetric design, a site plan, all the necessary drawings of plans, elevation and cross sections, as well as technological details.
During the standard period, some extempore tests will be held with attentions to specific architectural issues.
On technology of architecture
AA.VV., Manuale di progettazione edilizia, ed. Hoepli, voll. 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, 6°, 1992 (in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Grande Atlante di Architettura, Atlante del Cemento, vol. 1°, UTET, Torino, 1998(in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Grande Atlante di Architettura, Atlante del Legno, vol. 2°, UTET, Torino, 1998(in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Grande Atlante di Architettura, Atlante della Muratura, vol. 3°, UTET, Torino, 1998(in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Grande Atlante di Architettura, Atlante dei Tetti, vol. 4°, UTET, Torino, 1998(in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Grande Atlante di Architettura, Atlante dei Vetro, vol. 6°, UTET, Torino, 1999(in biblioteca politecnica)
AA.VV., Atlante dei materiali, vol. 19°, UTET, Torino, 2006(in biblioteca politecnica)
Allen E., I fondamenti del costruire, Mc Graw-Hill Italia, Milano 1997(in biblioteca politecnica)
Benedetti C., a cura di, Costruire in legno edifici a basso consumo energetico, Bolzano University Press, Bolzano, 2009
Benedetti C., Bacigalupi V, Materiali e Progetto, Kappa, Roma 1996(in biblioteca politecnica)
Chiostri F., Furiozzi B., Pilati D., Sestini V., Tecnologia dell’architettura, Alinea, Firenze, 1993.
Ghini A., (a cura di), Casa tecnologia ambiente, Maggioli, Santarcangelo di Romagna, 2011(in biblioteca politecnica)
Mandolesi E., Edilizia, Voll. I, II, III, IV, Edizione U.T.E.T., Torino, 1978-91(in biblioteca politecnica)
Nardi G., Le nuove radici antiche, Franco Angeli, Milano, 1992
Neufert E., Enciclopedia pratica per Progettare e Costruire, ed. Hoepli, 1981(in biblioteca politecnica)
Petrignani A., Tecnologie per l’architettura, Grlich, Novara 1992
Piardi S., Costruire edifici sani, Maggioli, Rimini, 1996
Rossini G., Segrè D., Tecnologia edilizia, 6 voll. Hoepli, Milano, 1991(in biblioteca politecnica)
Sinopoli N., Alla ricerca dell’innovazione, Franco Angeli, Milano 2002
Sinopoli N., La tecnologia invisibile, Franco Angeli, Milano, 1997(in biblioteca politecnica)
Sinopoli N., Zannoni G, Repertorio di progetti e di particolari costruttivi , Weka, voll. 1-2, Milano, 1993
Torricelli M. C., Del Nord R., Felli P., Materiali e tecnologie dell’architettura, Laterza, Bari, 2002.(in biblioteca politecnica)
Tubi N., La realizzazione delle murature in laterizio, Ed. Laterconsult, Roma(in biblioteca politecnica)
Tubi N., La realizzazione dei solai in laterizio, Ed. Laterconsult, Roma
Benedetti C., Manuale di Architettura bioclimatica, Maggioli Editore, Faenza, 1987(in biblioteca politecnica)
Jones L., Atlante di Bioarchitettura, UTET, Torino, 2002(in biblioteca politecnica)
Gauzin – Muller D., Architettura sostenibile, Edizioni Ambiente, Milano, 2003(in biblioteca politecnica)
Lavagna M., Sostenibilità e risparmio energetico. Soluzioni tecniche per involucri eco-efficienti, Clup, Milano, 2005
Olgyay V., Un approccio bioclimatico al regionalismo, Muzzio, Padova, 1981(in biblioteca politecnica)
Piardi S., Carena P., Oberti I., Ratti A., Costruire edifici sani, Guida alla scelta dei prodotti, Maggioli, Rep. S. Marino, 2000(in biblioteca Bizzozzero)
Wienke U., Manuale di bioedilizia, Dei, Roma, 2002(in biblioteca politecnica)
Basic learning materials and fundamentals can be also found on the online lessons, "Lea" website.
The regular class will be made of:
Review activities regarding the case study
Seminars and round-tables to test the design’s steps
Workshops and conferences with non academic partners, practitioners and entrepreneurs.
Assessment methods and criteria
The class concludes with the final exam during which, each working team or solo students will present their final works according to some specific instructions. Everyone will be asked with some questions about the course program in order to assess a proper learning levels in technology of architecture, by applying the basic contents, explained during the period.
The final mark will encompass both the “in itinere” tests and overall compliance of the project to the early design requests.
More in depth, the final mark will be made of these judgment’s areas:
• Preliminary assessments and site analysis (15%)
• Architectural quality (25%)
• Overall compliance and fairness of the technological systems (45%)
• Drawing and 3d model quality (15%)
• A 5% bonus for the extempore verifications.