PRINCIPLES OF SPORTS MEDICINE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student must know which activities (type, intensity, duration, frequency) is indicated in the each clinical situations and must be able to administer adequately. He must possess knowledge of the tests used in the laboratory and in the field for the functional evaluation in the various sporting disciplines. He must know antidoping control procedures, the desired effects and adverse effects in the short and long-term of the drugs used, the analytical techniques used, the characteristics of biological samples and the variables that affect the reliability of the results. It must also be able to set the phenomenon of doping and related issues in the current social and cultural context.
Knoweledge of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology.
Course contents summary
Adaptations and adjustments induced by exercise; positive and negative effects of exercise in healthy subjects and in chronic degenerative diseases; the main contraindications to competition; the principles of nutrition, hydration and integration in the sport; the effects of muscular work in adverse environmental conditions. History of doping, the list of prohibited substances, the national and international regulations, current legislation, and penalties.
Duties and functions of Sports Medicine: the protection of competitive and non-competitive sports and physical activity promotion. The visit of competitive and non-competitive sports fitness. Functional assessment in the major sports: body composition, postural examination, functional testing (practical applications and field exercises). The assessment of muscle imbalances: the isokinetic test. The isometric and isotonic muscle strengthening. The muscular work in the water. The proprioceptive exercises. Indications, contraindications and limitations of the fitness for competitive sports and non-competitive in children, adolescents and young adults: general, cardiovascular (arrhythmias), lungs, and other organs and systems. Pathology and pathology altitude from ambient heat: hydration, nutrition, integration and reintegration. Exercise and cardiovascular risk: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome cancer. Anemia of sport. Exertional rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue (overreaching and overtraining). Drugs and sport. The prescription drug in sports. Integration, supplementation, treatment, doping. Syndromes success. Fair play and sporting ethics. Doping: history; definitions; aspects of the problem; psychological motivations of the phenomenon; scandals; the risk. Protecting the health of sports activities: legislative and regulatory issues at the national and regional levels. Anti-doping: the law and the general procedures and controls; Regulations Olympic Committee and sports federations of the individual; the role of the FMSI (Italian sports federation doctor); penalties; the limits of current normativa The list of substances and methods prohibited. Fight against doping: intervention strategies.
D.R. Mottram: Farmaci e Sport. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
P. Zeppilli, V. Palmieri. Manuale di Medicina dello Sport e Pronto Soccorso. Ed. CESI.
Protocolli cardiologici per il giudizio di idoneità allo sport agonistico. Ed. CESI.
Dal Monte, M. Faina. La valutazione funzionale dell’atleta. Ed. UTET.
C. Macchi, R. Molino Lova, F. Cecchi. Attività motoria, fitness e salute nell'adulto e nell'anziano. NME e SEE Ed. Firenze 2007.
Assessment methods and criteria