# PHYSICS

## LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THE COURSE UNIT

The course gives, with a simplified approach, some basic concepts which are necessary to some of the following biology and chemistry courses. In particular, the contents of the present course offer a physical description of the mechanisms underlying many processes relevant for chemistry and biology.

Knowledge and understanding

The student should prove to be able to know and understand some of the most important aspects of classical physics, and of the physical laws controlling them.

Applying knowledge and understanding

The student should be able to understand similarities and differences between physical systems, and to comprehend physical laws. The student should be able to comprehend the essential aspects of physical laws, perform independently simple exercises, analyze the data and summarize the problems in their essential aspects.

## PREREQUISITES

Basics of arithmetic, algebra and calculus

## COURSE CONTENTS SUMMARY

Introduction

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Dimensional analysis and order of magnitude. Measurements and errors.

Mechanics

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Spece-time diagram. Position, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s laws. Fundamental interactions. Work. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Conservation of energy. Equilibrium. Rotary motion. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Torque.

Fluid mechanics

Stevino’s law. Archimede’s law. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Stoke’s law. Surface tension. Capillaries and Laplace law.

Thermodynamics

Temperature scales. Kinetic theory of gases. Equipartition of energy. Internal energy. Specific heat. Latent heat and phase transitions. Work and heat. First law of thermodynamics. Some selected transformations. Heat propagation. Heat engines. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot’s cycle.

Electromagnetism

Electric charge. Insulators and conductors. Induction and polarization. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Voltage. Capacity. Capacitors and resistors. Ohm’s and Joule’s laws. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Ampère’s law. Faraday’s law. Generalized Ampère’s law. Electromagnetic waves. Energy associated with the electromagnetic waves. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Polarization. Light refraction. Light dispersion.

Optics

Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Diffraction. Interference. Geometrical optics approximations. Light reflection and refraction. Snell’s law. Total reflection. Plane mirrors. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lenses’ builders equation. Applications to spectroscopic techniques.

## RECOMMENDED READINGS

Principi di Fisica vol I

Serway Jewett

EdiSES

## ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA

Written exam

## TEACHING METHODS

Oral lessons and exercises

## FURTHER INFORMATIONS

Office hours by appointment (Email).

## COURSE CONTENTS

Introduction

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Dimensional analysis and order of magnitude. Measurements and errors.

Mechanics

Physical quantities and Units. Vectors and scalars. Operations with vectors. Spece-time diagram. Position, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s laws. Fundamental interactions. Work. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Conservation of energy. Equilibrium. Rotary motion. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Torque.

Fluid mechanics

Stevino’s law. Archimede’s law. Continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity. Laminar and turbulent flow. Stoke’s law. Surface tension. Capillaries and Laplace law.

Thermodynamics

Temperature scales. Kinetic theory of gases. Equipartition of energy. Internal energy. Specific heat. Latent heat and phase transitions. Work and heat. First law of thermodynamics. Some selected transformations. Heat propagation. Heat engines. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Carnot’s cycle.

Electromagnetism

Electric charge. Insulators and conductors. Induction and polarization. Coulomb’s law. Electric field. Voltage. Capacity. Capacitors and resistors. Ohm’s and Joule’s laws. Magnetic field. Lorentz force. Ampère’s law. Faraday’s law. Generalized Ampère’s law. Electromagnetic waves. Energy associated with the electromagnetic waves. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Polarization. Light refraction. Light dispersion.

Optics

Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum. Diffraction. Interference. Geometrical optics approximations. Light reflection and refraction. Snell’s law. Total reflection. Plane mirrors. Lens and images forming. Relationship between conjugate points. Lenses’ builders equation. Applications to spectroscopic techniques.